INSTALLATION NOTES for OpenBSD/sgi 4.3 What is OpenBSD? ---------------- OpenBSD is a fully functional, multi-platform UN*X-like Operating System based on Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2) and 4.4BSD-Lite. There are several operating systems in this family, but OpenBSD differentiates itself by putting security and correctness first. The OpenBSD team strives to achieve what is called a 'secure by default' status. This means that an OpenBSD user should feel safe that their newly installed machine will not be compromised. This 'secure by default' goal is achieved by taking a proactive stance on security. Since security flaws are essentially mistakes in design or implement- ation, the OpenBSD team puts as much importance on finding and fixing existing design flaws and implementation bugs as it does writing new code. This means that an OpenBSD system will not only be more secure, but it will be more stable. The source code for all critical system components has been checked for remote-access, local-access, denial- of-service, data destruction, and information-gathering problems. In addition to bug fixing, OpenBSD has integrated strong cryptography into the base system. A fully functional IPsec implementation is provided as well as support for common protocols such as SSL and SSH. Network filtering and monitoring tools such as packet filtering, NAT, and bridging are also standard, as well as several routing services, such as BGP and OSPF. For high performance demands, support for hardware cryptography has also been added to the base system. Because security is often seen as a tradeoff with usability, OpenBSD provides as many security options as possible to allow the user to enjoy secure computing without feeling burdened by it. To integrate more smoothly in other environments, OpenBSD 4.3 also provides, on some platforms, several binary emulation subsystems (which includes iBCS2, Linux, OSF/1, SunOS, SVR4, Solaris, and Ultrix compatibility), aiming at making the emulation as accurate as possible so that it is transparent to the user. Because OpenBSD is from Canada, the export of Cryptography pieces (such as OpenSSH, IPsec, and Kerberos) to the world is not restricted. (NOTE: OpenBSD can not be re-exported from the US once it has entered the US. Because of this, take care NOT to get the distribution from an FTP server in the US if you are outside of Canada and the US.) A comprehensive list of the improvements brought by the 4.3 release is available on the web at OpenBSD/sgi runs on the SGI O2 workstations. Sources of OpenBSD: ------------------- This is a list of currently known FTP servers at the time of the 4.3 release. For a more recent list, please refer to Main server in Canada: (Alberta) 2nd level mirrors: (Vienna) (Erlangen) (Stockholm) (Redwood City, CA) (Boulder, CO) (Lake in the Hills, IL) Argentina: (Buenos Aires) Australia: (Perth) Austria: (Vienna) Belgium: (Brussels) (Brussels) Brazil: (Florianopolis, Santa Catarina) Bulgaria: (Plovdiv) Canada: (Calgary) (Edmonton) (Quebec) China: (Shanghai) Denmark: (Aalborg) (Copenhagen) Estonia: (Tallinn) Finland: (Espoo) (Jyvaskyla) France: (Paris) (Paris) (Rennes) Germany: (Berlin) (Berlin) (Duesseldorf) (Esslingen) (Nuremberg) (Oldenburg) Greece: (Athens) (Thessaloniki) (Thrace) (Heraklion) Hungary: (Budapest) Ireland: (Dublin) (Dublin) Israel: (Petach Tiqwa) Italy: (Napoli) Japan: (Ishikawa) (Nara) (Tokyo) (Tokyo) Korea: (Daejeon) Latvia: (Riga) (Riga) The Netherlands: (Amsterdam) (Utrecht) (Amsterdam) Norway: (Oslo) (Oslo) (Trondheim) Poland: (Gdansk) Portugal: (Coimbra) Russia: (Chernogolovka-Moscow) (Moscow) Slovenia: (Ljubljana) Spain: (Madrid) (A Coruna) Sweden: (Stockholm) (Stockholm) Switzerland: (Zurich) Turkey: (Istanbul) Ukraine: (Kiev) United Kingdom: (London) (Kent) USA: (Chicago, IL) (West Lafayette, IN) (Albuquerque, NM) (Buffalo, NY) (New York, NY) (Pittsburgh, PA) (PA) (Madison, WI) Additionally, the file contains a list which is continually updated. If you wish to become a distribution site for OpenBSD, contact . OpenBSD 4.3 Release Contents: ----------------------------- The OpenBSD 4.3 release is organized in the following way. In the .../4.3 directory, for each of the architectures having an OpenBSD 4.3 binary distribution, there is a sub-directory. The sgi-specific portion of the OpenBSD 4.3 release is found in the "sgi" subdirectory of the distribution. That subdirectory is laid out as follows: .../4.3/sgi/ INSTALL.sgi Installation notes; this file. MD5 Output of the md5(1) program, usable for verification of the correctness of downloaded files. *.tgz sgi binary distribution sets; see below. bsd A stock GENERIC sgi kernel which will be installed on your system during the install. bsd.rd A compressed RAMDISK kernel; the embedded filesystem contains the installation tools. Used for simple installation from a pre-existing system. cd43.iso A miniroot filesystem image suitable to be used as a bootable CD-ROM image, but will require the base and X sets be found via another media or network; otherwise similar to the bsd.rd image above. The OpenBSD/sgi binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the OpenBSD 4.3 release for sgi systems. There are eleven binary distribution sets. The binary distribution sets can be found in the "sgi" subdirectory of the OpenBSD 4.3 distribution tree, and are as follows: base43 The OpenBSD/sgi 4.3 base binary distribution. You MUST install this distribution set. It contains the base OpenBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional. It includes shared library support, and excludes everything described below. [ 48.6 MB gzipped, 164.1 MB uncompressed ] comp43 The OpenBSD/sgi Compiler tools. All of the tools relating to C, C++, Objective-C and Fortran are supported. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include), the linker, the compiler tool chain, and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages. [ 63.8 MB gzipped, 224.9 MB uncompressed ] etc43 This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set MUST be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should NOT be used if you are upgrading. (If you are upgrading, it's recommended that you get a copy of this set and CAREFULLY upgrade your configuration files by hand; see the section named Upgrading a previously-installed OpenBSD System" below.) [ 1.1 MB gzipped, 3.8 MB uncompressed ] game43 This set includes the games and their manual pages. [ 2.6 MB gzipped, 6.3 MB uncompressed ] man43 This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets. [ 7.3 MB gzipped, 26.6 MB uncompressed ] misc43 This set includes the system dictionaries (which are rather large), and the typesettable document set. [ 2.1 MB gzipped, 7.3 MB uncompressed ] xbase43 This set includes the base X distribution. This includes programs, headers and libraries. [ 8.5 MB gzipped, 29.2 MB uncompressed ] xetc43 This set includes the X window system configuration files that reside in /etc. It's the equivalent of etc43 for X. [ 77.9 KB gzipped, 301.9 KB uncompressed ] xfont43 This set includes all of the X fonts. [ 33.9 MB gzipped, 41.7 MB uncompressed ] xserv43 This set includes all of the X servers. [ 4.3 MB gzipped, 14.4 MB uncompressed ] xshare43 This set includes all text files equivalent between all architectures. [ 2.6 MB gzipped, 13.9 MB uncompressed ] OpenBSD System Requirements and Supported Devices: -------------------------------------------------- OpenBSD/sgi 4.3 runs on the following machines: O2 with the following CPU configurations: R5000, R52xx and RM7000 with any secondary/tertiary caches. R10000 and R12000 with secondary caches. On O2's with R10000 CPUs the Speculative Dirty problem is not handled in any special way. However, so far, we have not seen any problems from this behaviour. Supported devices include: - Ethernet Controllers built-in Mace Ethernet Controller (mec) Intel/DEC 21443 "Tulip" clones (dc) Intel i8255x-based (fxp) including: Intel EtherExpress PRO/10+ Intel EtherExpress PRO/100, PRO/100B, and PRO/100+ Intel EtherExpress PRO/100+ "Management Adapter" Intel EtherExpress PRO/100 Dual Port Intel PRO/100 VE, PRO/100 VM, and PRO/100 S - SCSI controllers built-in Adaptec AIC-7880 (ahc) 53C8xx-based SCSI (siop) LSI Logic Fusion-MPT Message Passing Interface (mpi) - RS-232 devices: on-board NS16550 compatible serial ports (com) - Miscellaneous devices: battery-backed real time clock ``soft'' power button as available on SGI O2 (power) Moosehead A/V Board audio (mavb) built-in SGI Graphics Back End framebuffer (gbe) built-in PS/2 Controller (mkbc) PS/2 mice (pms) PS/2 keyboards (pckbd) If your hardware is not listed above, there is currently no support for it in this release. Getting the OpenBSD System onto Useful Media: --------------------------------------------- Installation is supported from several media types, including: CD-ROM FFS partitions (for upgrades only) Tape Remote NFS partition FTP HTTP The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation depend on which method of installation you choose. Some methods require a bit of setup first that is explained below. The installation allows installing OpenBSD directly from FTP mirror sites over the internet, however you must consider the speed and reliability of your internet connection for this option. It may save much time and frustration to use ftp get/reget to transfer the distribution sets to a local server or disk and perform the installation from there, rather than directly from the internet. Creating an installation tape: While you won't be able to boot OpenBSD from a tape, you can use one to provide the installation sets. To do so, you need to make a tape that contains the distribution set files, each in "tar" format or in "gzipped tar format". First you will need to transfer the distribution sets to your local system, using ftp or by mounting the CD-ROM containing the release. Then you need to make a tape containing the files. If you're making the tape on a UN*X-like system, the easiest way to do so is make a shell script along the following lines, call it "/tmp/maketape". #! /bin/sh TAPE=${TAPE:-/dev/nrst0} mt -f ${TAPE} rewind for file in base etc comp game man misc xbase xetc xfont xshare do dd if=${file}43.tgz of=${TAPE} obs=8k conv=sync done tar cf ${TAPE} bsd mt -f ${TAPE} offline # end of script And then: cd .../4.3/sgi sh -x /tmp/maketape If you're using a system other than OpenBSD or SunOS, the tape name and other requirements may change. You can override the default device name (/dev/nrst0) with the TAPE environment variable. For example, under Solaris, you would probably run: TAPE=/dev/rmt/0n sh -x /tmp/maketape Note that, when installing, the tape can be write-protected (i.e. read-only). To install OpenBSD using a remote partition, mounted via NFS, you must do the following: NOTE: This method of installation is recommended only for those already familiar with using BSD network configuration and management commands. If you aren't, this documentation should help, but is not intended to be all-encompassing. Place the OpenBSD distribution sets you wish to install into a directory on an NFS server, and make that directory mountable by the machine on which you are installing or upgrading OpenBSD. This will probably require modifying the /etc/exports file of the NFS server and resetting its mount daemon (mountd). (Both of these actions will probably require superuser privileges on the server.) You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS server, and, if the server is not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading OpenBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the OpenBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the OpenBSD machine itself. Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the information mentioned above, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you are upgrading OpenBSD, you also have the option of installing OpenBSD by putting the new distribution sets somewhere in your existing file system, and using them from there. To do that, do the following: Place the distribution sets you wish to upgrade somewhere in your current file system tree. At a bare minimum, you must upgrade the "base" binary distribution, and so must put the "base43" set somewhere in your file system. It is recommended that you upgrade the other sets, as well. Preparing your System for OpenBSD Installation: ----------------------------------------------- Before you install your system, you should familiarize yourself with the ARCS setup and how to run programs from the Command monitor prompt. Accessing the Maintenance Console: When the system starts up, press the ESC key or use the mouse and click the ``stop for maintenance'' button. Once in the System Maintenance Menu, select '5' (or click the appropriate icon if you are using the graphics console) to go into the Command Monitor. If the internal disk with the lowest SCSI ID does not contain a valid Volume Header, but is bootable, the Maintenance Console will be entered by default. The first time the Maintenance Console is entered, it may be necessary to force a reset of the environment to its default settings by entering the ``resetenv'' command at the chevron prompt. If some variables have been set explicitly, this may disturb the normal OpenBSD boot process. Switching from serial to graphics console and vice versa: Booting the ramdisk kernel can be done from the ARCS graphic console although it might be more convenient to use the serial console for the installation procedure. Some systems come with the serial console enabled by default but sometimes this must be changed. To change to serial console, go into the ARCS Maintenance Console and change the ``console'' environment variable, and power-cycle the machine. > setenv console d will select 9600 8N1, no flow control, serial console on the first serial port (labeled ``(1)''), while > setenv console g will select the graphics console. Setting the environment: When setting up the system to boot from disk, the ``OSLoader'' environment variable will need to be changed. Its default value is ``sash'', which is IRIX' standalone shell and loader. Set it to ``boot'', the OpenBSD boot loader. Also, by default it tries to boot a kernel named ``/unix''. To make it boot OpenBSD, set ``OSLoadFilename'' to ``/bsd''. Disk numbering SGI numbers their disks 1-n depending on their position in the backplane. For example, on the O2, the slot closest to the CPU is numbered 1 and the next 2 if the CPU is a R5000. On R1x000 models, slot 1 is lost due to the larger heatsink on the CPU. Normally the kernel translates the slot numbers to disk numbers by subtracting 1 from the slot number, eg slot 1 becomes sd0. However on an O2 with a R1x000 cpu, 2 is subtracted from the slot number to compensate for the lost slot. When the kernel searches for the boot device it uses the ARCBios environment variable OSLoadPartition. Since the disk number in the variable is the absolute number, in contrast to the kernels relative numbers, the kernel will not be able to find the boot device if the disk slots are not filled from the lowest and up. An empty slot before the boot device will confuse the lookup. Installing the OpenBSD System: ------------------------------ Installing OpenBSD is a relatively complex process, but if you have this document in hand and are careful to read and remember the information which is presented to you by the install program, it shouldn't be too much trouble. There are several ways to install OpenBSD onto a disk. The easiest way in terms of preliminary setup is to use the OpenBSD ramdisk kernel that can be booted via BOOTP. The normal way is to use the bootable CD-ROM mini image. Booting over the network: First, a bootp or dhcpd server needs to be set up. The bootpd(8) or dhcpd(8) manual page on your server should provide detailed information on how to set up the server. The bootp or dhcp server needs to know the ethernet address of the system. This address can be found by using the ``printenv'' command in the Maintenance Console, looking for the ``eaddr'' variable. The server should also provide a tftp location, where the bsd.rd file should be available. Once the server is set up, boot with the following command in the Maintenance Console: > bootp()/bsd.rd Booting from CD-ROM installation media: From the System Maintenance Menu, select '2' (or click on the appropriate icon if in graphics console) to Install System Software. If necessary, select the proper CD-ROM drive, and press enter to confirm your choice. Insert the installation CD-ROM (if you did not do so already) and press enter to boot the system. If the boot is successful, you will get a loader version message, executable sizes, and then the kernel copyright and device probe messages. Boot failure modes are typically a lot of CD-ROM drive activity, but no messages or complaints about magic numbers, checksums or formats. Installing the system: You should now be ready to install OpenBSD. The following is a walk-through of the steps you will take while getting OpenBSD installed on your hard disk. If any question has a default answer, it will be displayed in brackets ("[]") after the question. If you wish to stop the installation, you may hit Control-C at any time, but if you do, you'll have to begin the installation process again from scratch. Using Control-Z to suspend the process may be a better option, or at any prompt enter '!' to get a shell, from which 'exit' will return you back to that prompt (no refresh of the prompt though). Boot your machine from the installation media as described above. It will take a while to load the kernel especially from a slow network connection, most likely more than a minute. If some action doesn't eventually happen, or the spinning cursor has stopped and nothing further has happened, either your boot media is bad, your diskless setup isn't correct, or you may have a hardware or configuration problem. Once the kernel has loaded, you will be presented with the OpenBSD kernel boot messages. You will want to read them to determine your disks name and geometry. Its name will be something like "sd0". You will also need to know the device name to tell the install tools what disk to install on. If you cannot read the messages as they scroll by, do not worry -- you can get at this information later inside the install program. You will next be asked for your terminal type. If you are installing from a non-serial console, the default of "vt220" is correct. If you are installing from a serial console you should choose the terminal type from amongst those listed. (If your terminal type is xterm, just use vt220.) After entering the terminal type you will be asked whether you wish to do an "(I)nstall" or an "(U)pgrade". Enter 'I' for a fresh install or 'U' to upgrade an existing installation. You will be presented with a welcome message and asked if you really wish to install (or upgrade). Assuming you answered yes, the install program will then tell you which disks of that type it can install on, and ask you which it should use. Reply with the name of your disk. Next the disk label which defines the layout of the OpenBSD file systems must be set up. The installation script will invoke an interactive editor allowing you to do this. Note that partition 'c' inside this disk label should ALWAYS reflect the entire disk, including any non-OpenBSD portions. If you are labeling a new disk, you will probably start out with an 'a' partition that spans the disk. In this case you should delete 'a' before adding new partitions. The root file system should be in partition 'a', and swap is usually in partition 'b'. It is recommended that you create separate partitions for /usr, /tmp, and /var, and if you have room for it, one for /home. In doing this, remember to skip 'c', leaving it as type "unused". For help in the disk label editor, enter '?' or 'M' to view the manual page (see the info on the ``-E'' flag). No partitions should overlap with the SGI Volume Header, which by default will use the first 3134 sectors. Additionally, the 'a' partition must be the first partition on the disk, immediately following the SGI Volume Header. If the default Volume Header size is used, the 'a' partition should be located at offset 3135. If the 'a' partition is not located immediately after the Volume Header the boot loader will not be able to locate and load the kernel. The swap partition (usually 'b') should have a type of "swap", all other native OpenBSD partitions should have a type of "4.2BSD". The install program will now label your disk and ask which file systems should be created on which partitions. It will auto- matically select the 'a' partition to be the root file system. Next it will ask for which disk and partition you want a file system created on. This will be the same as the disk name (e.g. "sd0") with the letter identifying the partition (e.g. "d") appended (e.g. "sd0d"). Then it will ask where this partition is to be mounted, e.g. /usr. This process will be repeated until you enter "done". At this point you will be asked to confirm that the file system information you have entered is correct, and given an opportunity to change the file system table. Next it will create the new file systems as specified, OVERWRITING ANY EXISTING DATA. This is the point of no return. After all your file systems have been created, the install program will give you an opportunity to configure the network. The network configuration you enter (if any) can then be used to do the install from another system using HTTP or FTP, and will also be the configuration used by the system after the installation is complete. If you select to configure the network, the install program will ask you for the name of your system and the DNS domain name to use. Note that the host name should be without the domain part, and that the domain name should NOT include the host name part. Next the system will give you a list of network interfaces you can configure. For each network interface you select to configure, it will ask for the IP address to use, the symbolic host name to use, the netmask to use, and any interface-specific flags to set. The interface-specific flags are usually used to determine which media the network card is to use. Typically no media flags are required as autodetection normally works, but you will be prompted with a list of the acceptable media flags, and asked if you want to provide any. In doubt, do not enter any media flags; or you can refer to the manual page for your interface for the appropriate flags. After all network interfaces have been configured, the install pro- gram will ask for a default route and IP address of the primary name server to use. You will also be presented with an opportunity to edit the host table. At this point you will be allowed to edit the file system table that will be used for the remainder of the installation and that will be used by the finished system, following which the new file systems will be mounted to complete the installation. After these preparatory steps have been completed, you will be able to extract the distribution sets onto your system. There are several install methods supported; FTP, HTTP, tape, CD-ROM, NFS, or a local disk partition. To install via FTP: To begin an FTP install you will need the following pieces of information. Don't be daunted by this list; the defaults are sufficient for most people. 1) Proxy server URL if you are using a URL-based FTP proxy (squid, CERN FTP, Apache 1.2 or higher). You need to define a proxy if you are behind a firewall that blocks outgoing FTP (assuming you have a proxy available to use). 2) Do you need to use active mode FTP? By default, ftp will attempt to use passive mode and fall back to an active connection if the server does not support passive mode. You only need to enable this option if you are connecting to a buggy FTP daemon that implements passive FTP incorrectly. Note that you will not be asked about active FTP if you are using a proxy. 3) The IP address (or hostname if you enabled DNS earlier in the install) of an FTP server carrying the OpenBSD 4.3 distribution. If you don't know, answer ``y'' when asked if you want to see a list of such hosts. 4) The FTP directory holding the distribution sets. The default value of pub/OpenBSD/4.3/sgi is almost always correct. 5) The login and password for the FTP account. You will only be asked for a password for non-anonymous FTP. For instructions on how to complete the installation via FTP, see the section named "Common URL installations" below. To install via HTTP: To begin an HTTP install you will need the following pieces of information: 1) Proxy server URL if you are using a URL-based HTTP proxy (squid, CERN FTP, Apache 1.2 or higher). You need to define a proxy if you are behind a firewall that blocks outgoing HTTP connections (assuming you have a proxy available to use). 2) The IP address (or hostname if you enabled DNS earlier in the install) of an HTTP server carrying the OpenBSD 4.3 distribution. If you don't know, answer ``y'' when asked if you want to see a list of such hosts. 3) The directory holding the distribution sets. There is no standard location for this; You should use the directory specified along with the server in the list of official HTTP mirror sites that you received in step 3. For instructions on how to complete the installation via HTTP, see the section named "Common URL installations" below. To install from tape: In order to install from tape, the distribution sets to be installed must have been written to tape previously, either in tar format or gzip-compressed tar format. You will also have to identify the tape device where the distribution sets are to be extracted from. This will typically be "nrst0" (no-rewind, raw interface). Next you will have to specify how many files have to be skipped on the tape. This number is usually zero. The install program will not automatically detect whether an image has been compressed, so it will ask for that information before starting the extraction. To install from CD-ROM: When installing from a CD-ROM, you will be asked which device holds the distribution sets. This will typically be "cd0". Next you will be asked which partition on the CD-ROM the distribution is to be loaded from. This is normally partition "a". Next you will have to identify the file system type that has been used to create the distribution on the CD-ROM, this can be either FFS or ISO CD9660. The OpenBSD CD-ROM distribution uses the CD9660 format. You will also have to provide the relative path to the directory on the CD-ROM which holds the distribution, for the sgi this is "4.3/sgi". For instructions on how to complete the installation from the CD-ROM distribution, see the section named "Common file system installations" below. To install from an NFS mounted directory: When installing from an NFS-mounted directory, you must have completed network configuration above, and also set up the exported file system on the NFS server in advance. First you must identify the IP address of the NFS server to load the distribution from, and the file system the server expects you to mount. The install program will also ask whether or not TCP should be used for transport (the default is UDP). Note that TCP only works with newer NFS servers. You will also have to provide the relative path to the directory on the file system where the distribution sets are located. Note that this path should not be prefixed with a '/'. For instructions on how to complete the installation from the CD-ROM distribution, see the section named "Common file system installations" below. Common file system installations: The following instructions are common to installations from mounted disk partitions, NFS mounted directories and CD-ROMs. A list of available distribution sets will be listed. You may individually select distribution sets to install or enter `all' to install all of the sets (which is what most users will want to do). You may also enter `list' to get a file list or `done' when you are done selecting distribution sets. You may also use wildcards in place of a file name, e.g. `*.tgz' or even `base*|comp*'. It is also possible to enter an arbitrary filename and have it treated as a file set. Once you have selected the file sets you want to install and entered `done' you will be prompted to verify that you really do want to extract file sets. Assuming you acquiesce, the files will begin to extract. If not, you will be given the option of installing sets via one of the other install methods. Common URL installations: Once you have entered the required information, the install program will fetch a file list and present a list of all the distribution sets that were found in the specified directory. (If no valid sets were found, you will be notified and given the option of unpacking any gzipped tar files found or getting a file list if none were found.) At this point you may individually select distribution sets to install or enter `all' to install all of the sets (which is what most users will want to do). You may also enter `list' to get a file list or `done' when you are done selecting distribution sets. You may also use wildcards in place of a file name, e.g. `*.tgz' or even `base*|comp*'. It is also possible to enter an arbitrary filename and have it treated as a file set. Once you have selected the file sets you want to install and entered `done' you will be prompted to verify that you really do want to download and install the files. Assuming you acquiesce, the files will begin to download and unpack. If not, you will be given the option of installing sets via one of the other install methods. When all the selected distribution sets have been extracted, you will be allowed to select which time zone your system will be using, all the device nodes needed by the installed system will be created for you, and the file systems will be unmounted. For this to work properly, it is expected that you have installed at least the "base43", "etc43", and "bsd" distribution sets. Congratulations, you have successfully installed OpenBSD 4.3. When you reboot into OpenBSD, you should log in as "root" at the login prompt. You should create yourself an account and protect it and the "root" account with good passwords. The install program leaves root an initial mail message. We recommend you read it, as it contains answers to basic questions you might have about OpenBSD, such as configuring your system, installing packages, getting more information about OpenBSD, sending in your dmesg output and more. To do this, run mail and then just enter "more 1" to get the first message. You quit mail by entering "q". Some of the files in the OpenBSD 4.3 distribution might need to be tailored for your site. We recommend you run: man afterboot which will tell you about a bunch of the files needing to be reviewed. If you are unfamiliar with UN*X-like system administration, it's recommended that you buy a book that discusses it. Upgrading a previously-installed OpenBSD System: ------------------------------------------------ Warning! Upgrades to OpenBSD 4.3 are currently only supported from the immediately previous release. The upgrade process will also work with older releases, but might not execute some migration tasks that would be necessary for a proper upgrade. The best solution, whenever possible, is to backup your data and reinstall from scratch. To upgrade OpenBSD 4.3 from a previous version, start with the general instructions in the section "Installing OpenBSD". Boot from the CD-ROM or the bsd.rd kernel. When prompted, select the (U)pgrade option rather than the (I)nstall option at the prompt in the install process. The upgrade script will ask you for the existing root partition, and will use the existing filesystems defined in /etc/fstab to install the new system in. It will also use your existing network parameters. From then, the upgrade procedure is very close to the installation procedure described earlier in this document. Note that the upgrade procedure will not let you pick the ``etc43.tgz'' set, so as to preserve your files in `/etc' which you are likely to have customized since a previous installation. However, it is strongly advised that you unpack the etc43.tgz set in a temporary directory and merge changes by hand, since all components of your system may not function correctly until your files in `/etc' are updated. Getting source code for your OpenBSD System: -------------------------------------------- Now that your OpenBSD system is up and running, you probably want to get access to source code so that you can recompile pieces of the system. A few methods are provided. If you have an OpenBSD CD-ROM, the source code is provided. Otherwise, you can get the pieces over the Internet using anonymous CVS, CTM, CVSync or FTP. For more information, see Using online OpenBSD documentation: ----------------------------------- Documentation is available if you first install the manual pages distribution set. Traditionally, the UN*X "man pages" (documentation) are denoted by 'name(section)'. Some examples of this are intro(1), man(1), apropos(1), passwd(1), passwd(5) and afterboot(8). The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8. The 'man' command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering 'man [section] topic'. The brackets [] around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the least-numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter man passwd to read the documentation for passwd(1). To view the documentation for passwd(5), enter man 5 passwd instead. If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter apropos subject-word where "subject-word" is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed. Adding third party software; ``packages'' and ``ports'': -------------------------------------------------------- As complete as your OpenBSD system is, you may want to add any of several excellent third party software applications. There are several ways to do this. You can: 1) Obtain the source code and build the application based upon whatever installation procedures are provided with the application. 2) Use the OpenBSD ``ports'' collection to automatically get any needed source file, apply any required patches, create the application, and install it for you. 3) Use the OpenBSD ``package'' collection to grab a pre-compiled and tested version of the application for your hardware. If you purchased the OpenBSD CD-ROM set you already have several popular ``packages'', and the ``ports'' collection. Instructions for installing applications from the various sources using the different installation methods follow. You should also refer to the packages(7) manual page. Installing applications from the CD-ROM package collection: The OpenBSD CD-ROM ships with several applications pre-built for various hardware architectures. The number of applications vary according to available disk space. Check the directory 4.3/packages/mips64 to see which packages are available for your hardware architecture. That directory will be on the same CD-ROM containing the OS installation files for your architecture. To install one or more of these packages you must: 1) become the superuser (root). 2) mount the appropriate CD-ROM. 3) use the ``pkg_add'' command to install the software. Example (in which we use su(1) to get superuser privileges, thus you have to be in group "wheel", see the manual page for su(1)). $ su Password: # mkdir -p /cdrom # mount /dev/cd0a /cdrom # pkg_add /cdrom/4.3/packages/mips64/ # # umount /cdrom Package names are usually the application name and version with .tgz appended, e.g. emacs-21.3.tgz Installing applications from the package collection: All available packages for your architecture have been placed on in the directory pub/OpenBSD/4.3/packages/mips64/ You may want to peruse this to see what packages are available. The packages are also on the OpenBSD FTP mirror sites. See for a list of current FTP mirror sites. Installation of a package is very easy. 1) become the superuser (root) 2) use the ``pkg_add'' command to install the software ``pkg_add'' is smart enough to know how to download the software from the OpenBSD FTP server. Example: $ su Password: # pkg_add \ Installing applications from the CD-ROM ports collection: The CD-ROM ``ports'' collection is a set of Makefiles, patches, and other files used to control the building and installation of an application from source files. Creating an application from sources can require a lot of disk space, sometimes 50 megabytes or more. The first step is to determine which of your disks has enough room. Once you've made this determination, read the file PORTS located on the CD-ROM which contains the ports tree. To build an application you must: 1) become the superuser (root) 2) have network access, or obtain the actual source files by some other means. 3) cd to the ports directory containing the port you wish to build. To build samba, for example, where you'd previously copied the ports files into the /usr/ports directory: cd /usr/ports/net/samba 4) make 5) make install 6) make clean Installing applications from the OpenBSD ports collection: See for current instructions on obtaining and installing OpenBSD ports. You should also refer to the ports(7) manual page. Installing other applications: If an OpenBSD package or port does not exist for an application you're pretty much on your own. The first thing to do is ask if anyone is working on a port -- there may be one in progress. If you can't find an existing port, try to make your own and feed it back to OpenBSD. That's how our ports collection grows. Some details can be found at with more help coming from the mailing list, . Administrivia: -------------- There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at . To get help on using the mailing list server, send mail to that address with an empty body, and it will reply with instructions. There are also two OpenBSD Usenet newsgroups, comp.unix.bsd.openbsd.announce for important announcements and comp.unix.bsd.openbsd.misc for general OpenBSD discussion. To report bugs, use the 'sendbug' command shipped with OpenBSD, and fill in as much information about the problem as you can. Good bug reports include lots of details. Additionally, bug reports can be sent by mail to: Use of 'sendbug' is encouraged, however, because bugs reported with it are entered into the OpenBSD bugs database, and thus can't slip through the cracks. As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to the mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it, or, if you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it. For more information about reporting bugs, see